Oligopolies – Hardouin http://hardouin.info/ Mon, 23 May 2022 21:10:52 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 Opinion: Ottawa must fix trade loopholes hurting independent businesses https://hardouin.info/opinion-ottawa-must-fix-trade-loopholes-hurting-independent-businesses/ Mon, 23 May 2022 21:10:52 +0000 https://hardouin.info/opinion-ottawa-must-fix-trade-loopholes-hurting-independent-businesses/

Vass Bednar is Executive Director of McMaster University’s Master of Public Policy in the Digital Society program and Adjunct Professor of Political Science. Denise Hearn is Principal Investigator at the American Project on Economic Freedoms.

The House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry and Technology is currently conducting a study on the productivity of our small and medium-sized businesses, with a focus on competitiveness and competition law reform.

As Ottawa plans to consult on a modernized law, it must rethink the unfair trading conditions that currently favor dominant companies and commit to fixing a series of loopholes, in both digital and traditional markets, that are hurting consumers and independent businesses.

To do this, policy makers should draw inspiration from current case studies. Consider the United States, where mobile payment service Venmo, owned by PayPal, introduces mandatory arbitration clauses into its consumer contract. This contractual clause requires the parties to resolve their disputes through an arbitration process instead of going to court. Forced arbitration processes have been criticized for being secretive, limiting the plaintiff’s legal rights, and often requiring them to pay large up-front fees to file a claim.

In Venmo’s case, the only way to opt out of binding arbitration is to physically send the company written notice. And if Venmo changes the terms of the agreement in the future, the opt-out does not hold. At this point, customers have one last option: accept our terms or close your account.

While Venmo is only available in the United States, Canadians are also at the mercy of the bank-owned INTERAC e-transfer payment system, which also mandates arbitration to resolve disputes, as many do. large Canadian companies. These take-it-or-leave-it contractual clauses are known as “adhesion contracts” and are increasingly common in the economy.

These terms illustrate how stakeholders, such as consumers, workers and businesses, are increasingly on the wrong side of an asymmetric bargaining position in markets. And while many provinces have used their consumer protection laws to protect consumers from binding arbitration clauses, these protections do not extend to businesses and commercial transactions.

Independent businesses often manage coercive, unfair, or unclear contract terms with dominant buyers on their own, some of which are anti-competitive. These one-sided contract clauses can be used to silence stakeholders (as with non-disclosure or non-disparagement clauses), limit options or legal rights (with waivers of binding arbitration or class action lawsuits) , hinder fair dealings (with exclusive sales agreements), restrict the freedom to set prices (without price competition clauses) and to extract profits or information (with mandatory disclosure of commercially sensitive information) .

But it’s not just about contracts – dominant players now dictate the terms and conditions of trade in so-called “free markets”. As things stand, entrepreneurs have to deal with a series of competition issues imposed by digital gatekeepers that are almost invisible to the consumer.

For example, independent businesses that sell in a marketplace based on a technology platform deal with gatekeepers who continually increase the “tolls” they charge sellers and vendors. Etsy sellers recently went on strike and shut down online stores to protest rising transaction fees. Meta recently announced that it will be taking a 47.5% cut of all digital assets sold on its metaverse platform – an astonishing percentage that will leave far less for artists, developers and creatives. And Amazon now derives most of its revenue from seller fees, which have risen steadily every year, and recently hit sellers with a 5% “fuel and inflation” surcharge.

These tolls act as private taxes on markets, and in the absence of adequate competition law and enforcement, small players have little means to refuse them.

But despite the increased fees, the platforms fail to take responsibility for the challenges that companies constantly complain about, such as copying, counterfeit products and fake reviews. Not to mention platforms like Google and Amazon that self-prefer their own products, making it nearly impossible for small businesses to compete. Platforms are not neutral commercial spaces; they are markets shaped by rules. These rules are now set by private regulators.

And tech platforms aren’t the only ones. Sector after sector, entrepreneurs and business people cannot access markets on fair and equal terms because of the dominant gatekeepers that stand between companies and their customers, or artists and their fans.

If you’re a musician, Live Nation/Ticketmaster’s vertical integration has created a stranglehold on venues and ticket sales. If you’re a grocery supplier, you have to contend with the grocery retail oligopoly of Loblaws, Empire, and Metro, which have imposed “compliance fees” on small businesses for late deliveries independent of their will due to supply chain constraints. If you’re a restaurant owner, the high tolls and manipulative behavior of mainstream delivery platforms like GrubHub, Uber Eats, and DoorDash nearly bankrupted your business during the pandemic. Many business owners are rightly afraid to speak out for fear of retaliation.

While competition policy regulators have mostly stood idly by over the past few decades, the rules of the competitive game have shifted from selling in open markets to monitoring markets. Innovation, business dynamism and start-up rates suffer. This means that companies no longer compete on the basis of producing higher quality goods and services, but rather through the aggregation of market power through endless mergers and acquisitions – which have reached a record level in Canada in 2021.

Even when dominant companies do things that are seemingly beneficial to business, it can still serve their interests. For example, larger companies also regularly participate in entrepreneurial ecosystems and may offer cash grant equivalents of their products and services. While this undoubtedly benefits small businesses, it also locks them into the incumbent’s services and prevents other providers from competing. As one entrepreneur at the Access to Markets initiative put it, “I would love to give away thousands of dollars in free cloud storage credits to startups, but that would bankrupt my business.”

Because of these threats to start-ups in Canada, achieving a vibrant, fair, and resilient economy requires a whole-of-government commitment to clarifying the terms of trade for businesses of all sizes. The government needs to consult directly with small business owners and entrepreneurs to understand the various ways in which their access to markets may be restricted. In addition, the Competition Bureau should conduct market research on adhesion contracts – and the effect of terms such as mandatory arbitration on independent businesses.

Given the complex and changing nature of business transactions, reviewing, updating and expanding Canada’s approach to competition to accurately reflect the needs of small and medium-sized businesses is a necessary step. to reduce transaction costs and improve affordability for Canadian consumers and entrepreneurs.

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Two women-led startups seek to solve infant formula crisis with synthetic breastmilk https://hardouin.info/two-women-led-startups-seek-to-solve-infant-formula-crisis-with-synthetic-breastmilk/ Sun, 22 May 2022 10:30:00 +0000 https://hardouin.info/two-women-led-startups-seek-to-solve-infant-formula-crisis-with-synthetic-breastmilk/

Although years away from FDA approval, Helaina and BioMilq are banking on parents’ willingness to feed their newborns a lab-developed product


The shortage of infant formula is an issue that Laura Katz and Michelle Egger considered when they separately decided to develop synthetic alternatives to breast milk.

Katz’s startup Helaina and Egger’s BioMilq have each raised more than $20 million from backers that include, in BioMilq’s case, Bill Gates. Although their products are likely years away from FDA approval, the respective 29-year-old founders are confident that their scientific innovations will provide caregivers with healthier alternatives that will be easier for modern families to find than breast milk. real. The question they need to answer: Will enough parents make the jump to synthetics?

For Katz, the idea for Helaina came at age 23, long before parenthood came to mind. She had left her Global Nutrition class at New York University’s Masters in Food Science program and boarded the N train, playing the role of Gimlet Media. Reply to all podcast to distract from the crowded subway car. It was when the host described a new mom who drove for hours and paid dodgy internet personas for breastmilk to breastfeed her baby that Katz realized no one had successfully marketed breastmilk. synthetic. Katz decided she would be the first. She created Helaina to use precision fermentation – the process of programming yeast to ferment into breastmilk protein – to manufacture and market scientifically made breastmilk.

“The shortage shows us how critical it is to drive innovation in this space, to provide wider and better access for parents who need to feed their children something other than breastmilk,” Katz says. “We humanize infant formula and bring it closer to breast milk in terms of the properties that breast milk brings to babies who drink it.”

Currently, caregivers have the option of feeding infants either naturally pumped breast milk or formula, which is cow’s milk scientifically modified to resemble human milk.

Katz raised $25 million in funding from backers like Spark Capital and Siam Capital. She and her team of 30 operate out of a New York lab where they experiment with precision fermentation and its uses for infants and the elderly. It is currently in the early stages of clinical trials. Katz declined to offer an estimate of when Helaina will be available to fill infant nutrition aisles, but she says her debut will stabilize prices, provide caregivers with a time-cost-free alternative to milk and break the oligopoly of the four. companies – Abbott, Nestlé, Perrigo and Reckitt Benckiser – which together represent 90% of the American market.

Despite what may be an initial reluctance to breastfeed their babies with milk made in a test tube, Stefani Bardin, who teaches food technology and design at New York University and Parsons School of Design, says that there will be takers. “I think technology can be really helpful in closing gaps in the food system,” says Bardin, who was one of Katz’s instructors at NYU but has had no contact with her since. “My only concern with these types of replacements is that companies [need] look at the body holistically. Bardin cites Soylent, a meal replacement drink that had to recall its product multiple times due to unintended consequences.

From a market perspective, infant nutrition companies are experiencing low growth, which explains the lack of innovation and consolidation in the space. “Synthetic milk could provide a solution,” says Shagun Singh, director of research at RBC Capital Markets. “I’m sure there could be a future for that.”

BioMilq is another company hoping to capitalize on this vision for the future. With backing of $25 million from investors like Gates, Novo Holdings and Breakthrough Energy Ventures, Egger, CEO and co-founder of BioMilq, plans to launch synthetic human milk within the next three to five years. Rather than ferment yeast, as Helaina does, BioMilq takes breast milk and breast tissue, donated by women in exchange for Target gift cards, and grows human cells capable of secreting milk.

BioMilq is technically ready for consumers, says Egger, but it won’t be available until at least 2025 because, like Helaina, it’s in trials. “Child nutrition hasn’t really interested mainstream entrepreneurs and investors because over the past decade it’s been relegated to a women’s issue,” says Egger. “Nobody on the street can launch an infant nutrition product, to some extent with good reason. This has blocked innovation because it is not easy to bring a product to market. It requires a lot of capital and scientific expertise.

When BioMilq receives marketing approval, Egger will begin by selling it directly to consumers at a premium price to offset the technology’s high cost of production. She believes her product will help women achieve equality at work without compromising child nutrition. “Breast milk is the absolute best source of nutrition,” she says. “The reality is that exclusive breastfeeding for most modern families is circumstantially out of reach.”

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MORE FORBESForbes Under 30 Hall of Fame ]]> As soaring food prices begin to bite, experts say Malaysia has learned little from the pandemic https://hardouin.info/as-soaring-food-prices-begin-to-bite-experts-say-malaysia-has-learned-little-from-the-pandemic/ Fri, 20 May 2022 16:09:40 +0000 https://hardouin.info/as-soaring-food-prices-begin-to-bite-experts-say-malaysia-has-learned-little-from-the-pandemic/

KUALA LUMPUR, May 21 – Experts say Putrajaya has failed to react quickly enough to tackle long-standing structural issues threatening national food security, leaving Malaysia vulnerable to a global commodity supply shock which caused commodity prices to skyrocket.

Food policy advocates have long warned of the dangers of the country’s growing reliance on imports to meet its food demand, as well as on the fertilizers and crops that feed livestock, making it particularly vulnerable to supply chain disruptions.

Food insecurity came under the spotlight after the Covid-19 crisis exposed underlying disparities in access to food, but experts said no tangible action had been taken since the pandemic to solve Malaysia’s food conundrum, as calls grew for food production to be prioritized. cash crops.

Fatimah Mohamed Arshad, who heads the agriculture and food security group at the Malaysian Teachers’ Academy, suggested that Putrajaya should put in place what she called a “food-first policy” to divert resources towards producing more food locally, including the domestication of input production such as making our own fertilizers or small machinery to reduce costs.

“Malaysia should give high priority to food by instituting a food-first policy and mobilizing resources to increase food productivity and value addition and reduce production costs,” she told Malay Mail.

“It needs to produce its own fertilizer, apply advanced technology, develop small machinery and processing plants for small producers and traders, and move to a high-tech supply chain, among others.

Putrajaya unveiled the National Food Security Action Plan 2021-2025 last year amid public concern over the rising cost of food when Covid-19 restrictions disrupted supplies.

Although resource-rich, Malaysia’s food trade deficit has widened over the past decade. The nation of 33 million people imported RM55.5 billion worth of food against RM33.8 billion worth of exports in 2020, resulting in a large deficit of RM21.7 billion, according to data from Bank Negara Malaysia.

Total food imports amounted to RM482.8 billion, compared to RM296 billion in exports over the past ten years, a trend that food security researchers say is “worrying”.

Malaysia now ranks 39th in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s 2021 Global Food Security Index, which assesses food security in more than 100 countries using indicators such as affordability, access, natural resources and resilience, among others.

Malaysia’s ranking was well below resource-poor countries like Singapore, which ranked 15th, and Qatar, which ranked 24th.

Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, then prime minister, said the plan aimed to reduce the country’s reliance on food and input imports by focusing more on domestic food production.

One of the main thrusts of the plan would be to modernize food production, move away from labor-intensive methods and strengthen research.

But experts said structural reform and food production take time, so it will be years before consumers can expect to see tangible results from the plan, so some researchers have proposed liberalizing imports of food as a quick fix.

“We should limit the issuance of Approved Permits (AP) for imported products to certain categories only (such as) food products that have (lower) self-sufficiency rates,” wrote Amanda Yeo, an analyst at the Emir think tank. Research, in an article. on the subject published earlier this month.

“In other words, liberalize our food import system to ensure a level playing field and fight against monopolies and oligopolies that increase the cost of doing business and the cost of living.”

On Wednesday, Prime Minister Datuk Seri Ismail Sabri Yaakob lifted the PA requirement for food imports in a bid to alleviate some of the problems stemming from global supply shortages that are squeezing food import prices.

The move was criticized by local producers who said it could hurt local farmers and food producers who will have to compete with cheaper imports from big producing countries, which tend to be heavily subsidized.

Food security advocates and researchers have mostly agreed that Malaysia’s food security is likely to depend on the political will of elected leaders to make painful reforms that would primarily harm allies who have benefited from a system of distorted supply which tends to favor cartels and oligopolies.

Nurfitri Amir Muhammad, an activist who coordinates the Food Sovereignty Forum, said the AP import system had largely enriched politically connected business elites instead of smallholders, although he suggested that the protectionism offered by a license quota could still help small producers thrive.

“There are numerous allegations that the AP system has been abused to allow certain parties to monopolize the market,” he told Malay Mail.

“We need to reform and improve the system so that it is limited and granted only to eligible wholesalers, and not totally abolished,” he added.

On the retail side, Yeo said the government should work closely with non-governmental organizations to organize open-air food bazaars that could allow food producers to sell their fresh produce directly, cutting the “middlemen” to make food cheaper.

“They could identify several hotspots in each Malaysian state and implement carnivals at least twice a month. Owners of mom-and-pop stalls will have the option of selling leftovers but edible foods or ‘substandard’ vegetables and fruits, generating their economic livelihood,” she said.

“On the other hand, the middle class would find it more affordable to buy ‘low quality’ food at lower prices.”

Malaysia’s Consumer Price Index (CPI) in March 2022 increased by 2.2% to 125.6 from 122.9 in March 2021, exceeding the average inflation for the period January 2011-March 2022 which amounted to 1.9%. The surge was mainly driven by food prices, said Malaysia’s Statistics Department, which rose 4% in March year-on-year.

Food security is now a key part of Malaysia’s 12th Five-Year Plan, which Putrajaya says underlines its commitment to keeping food affordable and accessible to all.

But experts have warned of problems that often hamper execution, citing the failures of previous plans unveiled by several past administrations due to the government’s unwillingness to address structural shortcomings at all levels of the supply chain. supply.

“If Malaysia continues with business as usual or as it currently does, the situation could get even worse. Indeed, the global market may face more shocks in the future,” Fatima said.

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Internet is imperfect and Web3 is the answer: a16z https://hardouin.info/internet-is-imperfect-and-web3-is-the-answer-a16z/ Wed, 18 May 2022 03:46:00 +0000 https://hardouin.info/internet-is-imperfect-and-web3-is-the-answer-a16z/

He said that after the friendly beginnings of Web2, companies became more “extractive and less cooperative”, presumably referring to web giants such as Google (GOOG) and Meta (formerly Facebook – FB), although he does not mention them directly.

Web3 is different, however, because it aligns network participants to work together toward a common goal: network growth and health. Users can own part of the Internet and control their own data, which is the complete opposite of the current state of affairs controlled by a handful of data collection monopolies.

Ethereum a double edged sword

The report states that Web3 is a multi-chain environment with Ethereum (ETH) dominating the ecosystem with 5.5 million active addresses and 1.1 million daily transactions.

He added that although there are many rival blockchains such as Solana (SOL), BNB Chain (BNB), and Avalanche (AVAX), the demand for Ethereum block space is unmatched. Ethereum also continues to attract the most developers, keeping it ahead of the competition.

Nonetheless, the company warned that Ethereum’s popularity is also a “double-edged sword” as it has suffered scaling issues resulting in astronomical network fees during peak times. Average gas fees hit over $200 per transaction on May 1 after the high-profile launch of a non-fungible token (NFT). Layer 2 networks have emerged and are competing to reduce these charges, however, there are now many more choices than ever before.

The company determined that it was still very early days for crypto and Web3, stating:

“We estimate that there are between 7 and 50 million active Ethereum users today. (Compared to the Internet, that puts us somewhere around the year 1995.). “

Crypto is much more than just financial innovation, he added, explaining that social, cultural and technological factors are all integrated. “There is plenty of room to build, and we believe there will be several winners,” the report concludes.

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Inside Ellen DeGeneres’ Emotional TV Farewell Inside Ellen DeGeneres’ Emotional Finale Show https://hardouin.info/inside-ellen-degeneres-emotional-tv-farewell-inside-ellen-degeneres-emotional-finale-show/ Mon, 16 May 2022 13:30:03 +0000 https://hardouin.info/inside-ellen-degeneres-emotional-tv-farewell-inside-ellen-degeneres-emotional-finale-show/

The final episode of “The Ellen DeGeneres Show” airs on NBC on May 26, capping a 19-year streak on daytime television for the now 64-year-old host. And as TV insiders recently told Page Six, it was an “emotional” time. for Ellen, who filmed the final episode late last month.

Alberto E. Rodriguez/Getty Images for Disney

“Ellen cried a lot,” a source told the outlet in a May 14 report. “The few weeks leading up to the final were very emotional.”

Ellen reportedly skipped the fanfare of a red carpet or celebrity-studded audience for the episode, which stars Jennifer Aniston and Pink – guests who also appeared at the show’s 2003 premiere.

“She wanted to hang out quietly. It was the friends and family of the cast and crew in the audience,” another TV insider said.

Ellen’s wife, Portia de Rossi, and brother, Vance DeGeneres, were keen to support the star on set as she filmed the final shows.

“Ellen, 100%, did it on her own terms,” a third insider told Page Six. “She got out the way she wanted. There wasn’t a dry eye in the house the last day.”

Ellen announced her exit plans 10 months after she and a number of the show’s top producers were hit with numerous allegations that they fostered a toxic workplace. After Buzzfeed News published allegations of routine bullying by superiors, sexual harassment, racism and more negativity happening behind the scenes in 2020, Warner Bros. launched an internal investigation and found enough evidence to fire producers Ed Glavin, Kevin Leman and Jonathan Norman.

When Ellen returned to kick off season 18, she addressed the scandal in the first episode, telling viewers, “I learned that things are happening here that never should have happened. I take this very seriously. . And I want to say I’m so sorry to the people who were affected.”


Chris Pizzello/AP/Shutterstock

According to the New York Post, ratings dropped significantly during this 2020-2021 season, and Ellen would later admit to Savannah Guthrie on “Today” that she was considering ending the show immediately because the allegations were ” devastating”.

Instead, she persevered.

“When Ellen started the show, the studio told her ‘you can’t say ‘we’ when you’re talking about your girlfriend’, that’s what she was dealing with at first,” another source said, referencing Ellen’s controversial decision. go out gay.

“No one ever thought the show would air, even selling it at first was so hard,” the person continued. “She always wanted to go to 19 seasons, she had people who relied on her for their livelihood.”

In her nearly two decades on the air, Ellen has donated “nearly half a billion dollars to viewers and those in need,” the Post noted.

After filming the final episode, Ellen reportedly celebrated the milestone at a party in Hollywood with the crew and friends.


Michael Rozman/Warner Bros.

“When you look back at all she’s done for people over the past 19 years, it’s powerful,” a source added. “The most important thing for Ellen over the last few weeks and for everyone on the team was to show the family what this show is – and so the emotion came from the sense of togetherness they had. “

In addition to Jen Aniston and Pink, the latest episode of “Ellen” features Justin Timberlake, Diddy, Kerry Washington, Billie Eilish and more.

In a post about the finale on Instagram last week, Ellen shared her gratitude with fans, writing, “Thank you to everyone celebrating my final season with me. ❤.”

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Bette Midler slammed for tweeting ‘Try breastfeeding’ amid formula shortage https://hardouin.info/bette-midler-slammed-for-tweeting-try-breastfeeding-amid-formula-shortage/ Sat, 14 May 2022 20:49:50 +0000 https://hardouin.info/bette-midler-slammed-for-tweeting-try-breastfeeding-amid-formula-shortage/ By Brent Furdyk.
Dan Hibbs: Bioplastics should replace harmful petrochemical plastics https://hardouin.info/dan-hibbs-bioplastics-should-replace-harmful-petrochemical-plastics%ef%bf%bc/ Thu, 12 May 2022 11:01:00 +0000 https://hardouin.info/dan-hibbs-bioplastics-should-replace-harmful-petrochemical-plastics%ef%bf%bc/

This comment is from Dan Hibbs, an Underhill resident who studies community entrepreneurship at the University of Vermont.

Did you know that the Chittenden Solid Waste District no longer accepts compostable tableware? The technology that breaks down plant-based bioplastics is too expensive.

But without industrial composting, bioplastic pollution is almost as harmful as petrochemical plastic pollution. The bioplastics industry was valued at $9.2 billion in 2020, representing approximately 2% of the global plastics market.

This industry needs government support to make bioplastics more efficient and less expensive. This would allow bioplastics to be more competitive and help reduce the negative impacts of petrochemical plastic pollution on Americans and natural resources.

Our economy needs bioplastics to become more affordable and efficient because petrochemical plastic contaminates food and jeopardizes the productivity of natural resources such as soil and fisheries. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, for example, is the largest marine plastic waste dump in the world.

Small fish and shellfish often mistake plastics for food and get sick. When big fish eat a lot of small fish, the toxins concentrate in the big fish. This is problematic because consumers like to buy big fish like tuna and salmon.

Chemicals like phthalates that make up petrochemical plastics are endocrine disruptors, known to cause developmental, reproductive, brain and immune system problems.

A 2019 National Geographic article found that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch could make seafood less available and more expensive, suggesting petrochemical plastics may be less profitable than consumers think. This article also revealed that “increasing the use of biodegradable resources will be the best way to clean up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.”

Public investment in effective and affordable bioplastics innovation would preserve productive ecosystems that provide valuable sources of food, materials, tourism, carbon sequestration and oxygenation.

Innovation that makes bioplastics more competitive could reduce the consumption and market share of petrochemical plastics. Since petrochemical plastic production depends on petroleum refining, a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions, investments in bioplastics offer an opportunity to mitigate climate change and local air pollution that has a disproportionate impact on BIPOC communities.

Elected officials must direct public investment towards bioplastic innovation to deal with the consolidation of lobbying power. The fossil fuel industry, which produces inputs for petrochemical plastics, wields immense lobbying power in Washington, DC, and has a history of exploiting crises like the Covid-19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022 to roll back regulations and increase profits.

A 2021 memo released by Rep. Carolyn Maloney, DN.Y., chair of the U.S. House Committee on Oversight and Reform, criticized the fossil fuel lobby by stating that “public claims regarding their efforts to reduce emissions have often exaggerated the importance of their actions while hiding or downplaying their continued investments in fossil fuels.

Additionally, a 2020 NPR report details how Big Oil has misled the public for decades about the effectiveness of recycling to minimize social costs and sell more plastic.

Oligopolistic influences undermine the ability of governments and consumers to hold fossil fuel companies accountable for their deception and pollution. Innovative bioplastics could reduce the market share of petrochemical plastics and reduce the influence of the fossil fuel oligopoly.

Bioplastic products have a lot of potential to make our economy more equitable and sustainable. But that potential gets thrown into a landfill when bioplastics can’t be composted by waste districts like the Chittenden Solid Waste District.

It seems that our society is only beginning to understand the long term impacts of petrochemical plastic pollution as plastics have only been popular since the 1960s. However, plastics are incredibly useful and have promising future applications like 3D printing. Can you imagine our lives without plastic?

For better or for worse, plastics are not going away. That’s why I think we need to make bioplastics work.

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Our journalism is made possible by donations from our members. If you appreciate what we do, please contribute and help keep this vital resource accessible to everyone.

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Keywords: Big Oil, bioplastics, Chittenden solid waste district, dan hibbs, greenhouse gas emissions, petrochemical plastic, Rep. Carolyn Maloney

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